Τετάρτη 6 Μαρτίου 2024

Ταξιδιωτικές Σημειώσεις σχετικά με την Κορυτσά Θ. Βελλιανίτης Δ' Μέρος (1919)- Shënime nga udhëtimi në Korçë T. Vellianitet 1919 - Pjesa e 4të -Traveling Notes On Corytsa by T. Vellianites (Part ΙV) 1919

 

#Κορυτσά, #Β_Ήπειρος #Ιστορία #Histori

 

Part 1

Part 2 

Part 3

Traveling Notes On

Corytsa

by

T. Vellianites

Essayist, Historian,

and

Deputy to the Greek Parliament

Translated by

NICHOLAS CULOLIAS, LL.B1

Published by the Pan-Epirotic

Union of America

7 Water St., Boston, Mass.

 

Printed by the

PURITAN LINOTYPE

 

Cambridge, Mass.

1919

V.

But let us return to Corytsa. The municipal property of that city exceeds in value 3,000,000 francs from whose income there is maintained

among other institutions, one hospital and one apothecary, which provides drugs to the poor without cost; dowries also are provided for many poor for worthy girls of the city.

Commerce, on the other hand, is entirely in Greek hands. Perhaps nowhere is the Greek conscience so deeply rooted as it is here. All these justify the terrible uprising of the people of Corytsa in 1914,

when it was demanded that she be separated from her motherland Greece and be joined to the ephemeral Albanian state which was the creation of Austrian policy seeking underhandedly to keep that country in constant turmoil.

The patriotism and the Greek character of that district is traditional among the Epirotes and Macedonians. Her inhabitants have never sought

to identify their national existence with that of the Albanians. Two examples will suffice to show how jealously they guard their principles. In 1886 the benefactor of this city, Anastosios Liaktsis, offered to the municipality of Corytsa 600,000 francs for the educational institutions maintained by it. He placed, however, one condition, that the Albanian tongue be taught in them two hours a week. The

community came together in a General Assembly and refused that large gift. Liatskis hastened in a touching letter to beg forgiveness from his fellow countrymen and to beseech the community to accept the gift without any conditions. Erakles Douros also offered 100,000 francs for the philanthropic institutions of the city, but in the instrument by which the gift was made he mentioned

Christian community and not Greek. The community again gathered together in a general assembly and did not hesitate to reject this gift also. In this manner, the Corytseans showed that they were always Greek by breeding, by character, by blood and by descent and that they continue to be such, inseparably bound to their Greek fatherland. And,

indeed, whoever studies that beautiful land from the point of view of language, of national conscience, of history, of traditions, of customs and morals, he sees everywhere a pure Hellenism existing undiminishd for two thousand years and more. All the coins found which date before Christ, all the inscriptions, all the works of art before and after Christ, are as much Greek as the works of Athens or any other Greek land. This Hellenism, nevertheless, did run the danger of being assimilated with foreign elements much inferior to itself in civilization. Great efforts and revolutionary Uprising of the inhabitants was required to suspend decisions which violated every principle of justice and truth.

One revolution broke out immediately after the treaty of Florence. In the streets of Corytsa there are still traces of that revolt. The Albanians entered the city on the seventeenth of February, 1914.

Those who saw that ragged mob of deserters from the Turkish army, accompanied by a Dutch officer of Austrian descent, were horrified at the sight.

The country was falling anew into another and more shameful yoke. But a month had not elapsed and the city as well as the villages round about, showed that it was impossible to suffer the fate allotted them by the Conference. On the 19th of

March, 1914, the city was in full revolutionary orgasm. On the same day Corytsa was divided into two military camps and the battle from hour to hour assumed terrible proportions.

During the three days the battle was carried on in the different sectors of the city, one hundred and fourteen Greeks were killed and more than this number of Wied's Albanians who had gathered together from all sides. This revolution, which was unprepared and broke out suddenly, was apt to be checked. The archbishop and the notables were seized and were taken in chains to Elbasan.

At this instance the Gegs revolted against Wied and freed the archbishop and the leading men of Corytsa. After the European war broke out, the state of Wied was dissolved and Corytsa was occupied again by the Greek army.

Since then the vicissitudes of the city have not ceased. The wretched policy of the deposed King Constantine gave occasion to have Corytsa separated from her natural Greek administration.

Since then those wonderful Greek schools which for more than two centuries have shed the light of culture, have ceased to operate temporarily. Corytsa is in the possession of the French, and has a system

of administration which is peculiar indeed, with all

the signs of temporariness.

Transcript from original book.

©Pelasgos Koritsas

 

 

 

Pjesa e I

Pjesa e II 

Pjesa e III

Shënime nga udhëtimi në Korçë

T. Vellianitet

Eseist, Historian,

dhe

Deputet në parlamentin grek

Përkthyer nga

NICHOLAS CULOLIAS, LL.B1

^

Botuar nga Pan-Epirotiku

Bashkimi i Amerikës

7 Water St., Boston, Mass.

Shtypur nga

LINOTIPI PURITAN

Kembrixh, Mass.

1919

V.

Por le të kthehemi te Korica. Pasuria komunale e atij qyteti kalon në vlerën e 3 000 000 frangave nga të ardhurat e së cilës financohen mes institucioneve të tjera, një spital dhe një farmaci, e cila u ofron barna të varfërve pa kosto. Janë dhënë edhe prikë për shumë vajza të varfëra e të  denja të qytetit.

Tregtia, nga ana tjetër, është tërësisht në duar greke. Ndoshta askund nuk është e rrënjosur aq thellë ndërgjegjja greke sa këtu. Të gjitha këto justifikojnë kryengritjen e tmerrshme të popullit të Korçës në 1914, kur u kërkua që ajo të ndahej nga atdheu i saj Greqia dhe të bashkohej me shtetin e përkohshëm shqiptar që ishte krijim i politikës austriake e cila kërkonte fshehurazi ta mbante atë vend në trazira të vazhdueshme.

Patriotizmi dhe karakteri grek i kësaj zone është tradicional tek epirotët dhe maqedonasit. Banorët e saj nuk kanë kërkuar kurrë

të identifikojnë ekzistencën e tyre kombëtare me atë të shqiptarëve. Dy shembuj do të mjaftojnë për të treguar se me sa zell i ruajnë parimet e tyre. Në vitin 1886, bamirësi i këtij qyteti, Anastas Lakçe, i ofroi bashkisë së Koricës 600.000 franga për institucionet arsimore që mbante ajo. Megjithatë, ai vendosi një kusht, që në to të mësohej gjuha shqipe dy orë në javë. Komuniteti u mblodh në një Asamble të Përgjithshme dhe e refuzoi atë dhuratë të madhe. Lakçe nxitoi në një letër prekëse t'u lutej bashkatdhetarëve të tij për falje dhe t'i lutej komunitetit që ta pranonte dhuratën pa asnjë kusht. Irakli Douro ofroi edhe 100.000 franga për institucionet filantropike të qytetit, por në instrumentin me të cilin u bë dhurata ai përmendi “Komuniteti i krishterë” dhe jo grek. Komuniteti u mblodh sërish në një asamble të përgjithshme dhe nuk hezitoi ta refuzojë edhe këtë dhuratë. Në këtë mënyrë, korçarët treguan se ishin gjithmone greke nga lindja, nga karakteri, nga gjaku dhe nga prejardhja dhe se ata vazhdojnë të jenë të tillë, të lidhur në mënyrë të pandashme me atdheun e tyre grek. Dhe, me të vërtetë, kushdo që studion atë tokë të bukur nga këndvështrimi i gjuhës, i konshiencës, historisë, traditave, zakoneve dhe moralit, ai sheh kudo një helenizëm të pastër që ekziston pa u zbehur për dy mijë vjet e më shumë. Të gjitha monedhat e gjetura datojnë para  Krishtit, të gjitha mbishkrimet, të gjitha veprat e artit para dhe pas Krishtit, janë po aq greke sa edhe veprat e Athinës apo të ndonjë vendi tjetër grek. Megjithatë, ky helenizëm rrezikonte të asimilohej me elementë të huaj shumë inferiorë se vetja në aspektin e qytetërimit. U nevojitën përpjekje të mëdha dhe Kryengritje revolucionare të banorëve për të pezulluar vendimet që cenonin çdo parim të drejtësisë dhe të së vërtetës.

Një revolucion shpërtheu menjëherë pas traktatit të Firences. Në rrugët e Korçës ka ende gjurmë të asaj revolte. Shqiptarët hynë në qytet më 17 shkurt 1914.

Ata që panë atë turmë të rreckosur dezertorësh nga ushtria turke, të shoqëruar nga një oficer holandez me origjinë austriake, u tmerruan nga kjo pamje.

Vendi po binte sërish në një zgjedhë tjetër dhe më të turpshme. Por nuk kishte kaluar një muaj dhe qyteti, si dhe fshatrat përreth, tregonin se ishte e pamundur të pranonin fatin e caktuar nga Konferenca. Më datë 19 të Mars 1914, qyteti ishte në orgazmë të plotë revolucionare. Në të njëjtën ditë, Korça u nda në dy kampe ushtarake dhe beteja nga ora në orë mori përmasa të tmerrshme.

Gjatë tre ditëve lufta u zhvillua në sektorë të ndryshëm të qytetit, njëqind e

Katërmbëdhjetë grekë u vranë dhe më I madh se ky numër ishte ai shqiptarëve të Wied-it që ishin mbledhur së bashku nga të gjitha anët. Ky revolucion, i cili ishte i papërgatitur dhe shpërtheu papritur, ishte i përshtatshëm

për t’u kontrolluar. Peshkopi dhe përfaqësuesit e dhimogjerondisë u kapën dhe u çuan të lidhur me zinxhirë në Elbasan.

Në këtë rast gegët ngritën krye kundër Wiedit (Vidit) dhe liruan peshkopin dhe drejtuesit e Korçës. Pas shpërthimit të luftës evropiane, shteti i Wied-it u shpërbë dhe Korça u pushtua përsëri nga ushtria greke.

Që atëherë peripecitë e qytetit nuk kanë të ndalur. Politika e mjerë e mbretit të rrëzuar Konstandin krijoi mundësinë që Korça të ndahej nga administrata e saj natyrore greke.

Që atëherë ato shkolla të mrekullueshme greke të cilat për më shumë se dy shekuj kanë hedhur dritën e kulturës, pushuan së funksionuari përkohësisht. Korça është në zotërim të francezëve dhe ka një sistem administrimi që është me të vërtetë e veçantë, me të gjitha shenjat e përkohshmërisë.

Përgatiti, Përktheu:

©Pelasgos Koritsas

 

*Nuk lejohet ripublikmi pa referim të burimit.

 

 

 

Ά Μέρος 

Β΄Μέρος 

Γ΄Μέρος

Ταξιδιωτικές Σημειώσεις σχετικά με την Κορυτσά

Θ. Βελλιανίτης

Δοκιμιογράφος, Ιστορικός,

και

Βουλευτής της Βουλής των Ελλήνων

Μεταφράστηκε από

NICHOLAS CULOLIAS, LL.B1

Έκδοση της Πανηπειρωτικής

Ένωση της Αμερικής

7 Water St., Βοστώνη, Mass.

Τυπώθηκε από το

ΠΟΥΡΙΤΑΝΙΚΟΣ ΛΙΝΟΤΥΠΟΣ

Cambridge, Mass.

1919

V.

Ας επιστρέψουμε όμως στην Κορυτσά. Η δημοτική περιουσία της πόλης αυτής υπερβαίνει σε αξία τα 3.000.000 φράγκα από τα έσοδα της οποίας διατηρούνται μεταξύ των άλλων ιδρυμάτων, ένα νοσοκομείο και ένα φαρμακείο, το οποίο παρέχει φάρμακα στους φτωχούς χωρίς κόστος· προβλέπεται επίσης προίκα για πολλά φτωχά άξια κορίτσια της πόλης.

Το εμπόριο, από την άλλη, είναι εξ ολοκλήρου σε ελληνικά χέρια. Ίσως πουθενά η ελληνική συνείδηση δεν είναι τόσο βαθιά ριζωμένη όσο εδώ. Όλα αυτά δικαιολογούν τη φοβερή εξέγερση του λαού της Κορυτσάς το 1914, όταν της ζητήθηκε να χωριστεί από την πατρίδα της Ελλάδα και να ενταχθεί στο εφήμερο αλβανικό κράτος που ήταν το δημιούργημα της αυστριακής πολιτικής που προσπαθούσε κρυφά να κρατήσει τη χώρα αυτή σε συνεχή αναταραχή.

Ο πατριωτισμός και ο ελληνικός χαρακτήρας αυτής της περιοχής είναι παραδοσιακός στους Ηπειρώτες και τους Μακεδόνες. Οι κάτοικοί της δεν αναζήτησαν ποτέ να ταυτίσουν την εθνική τους ύπαρξη με αυτή των Αλβανών. Δύο παραδείγματα αρκούν για να δείξουν με πόσο ζήλια φυλάνε τις αρχές τους. Το 1886 ο ευεργέτης της πόλης αυτής Αναστόσιος Λιάκτσης προσέφερε στον δήμο Κορυτσάς 600.000 φράγκα για τα εκπαιδευτικά ιδρύματα που διατηρούσε. Έθεσε, ωστόσο, έναν όρο, να διδάσκεται η αλβανική γλώσσα σε αυτά δύο ώρες την εβδομάδα.

Η κοινότητα συγκεντρώθηκε σε μια Γενική Συνέλευση και αρνήθηκε αυτό το μεγάλο δώρο. Ο Λιάκτσης έσπευσε με μια συγκινητική επιστολή να ζητήσει συγχώρεση από τους συμπατριώτες του και να παρακαλέσει την κοινότητα να δεχθεί το δώρο χωρίς όρους. Ο Ηρακλής Δούρος πρόσφερε και αυτός 100.000 φράγκα για τα φιλανθρωπικά ιδρύματα της πόλης, αλλά στο όργανο με το οποίο έγινε το δώρο ανέφερε

Χριστιανική κοινότητα και όχι ελληνική. Η κοινότητα συγκεντρώθηκε ξανά σε μια γενική συνέλευση και δεν δίστασε να απορρίψει και αυτό το δώρο. Με αυτόν τον τρόπο, οι κορυτσαίοι έδειξαν ότι ήταν πάντα Έλληνας εκ γενετής, κατά χαρακτήρα, εξ αίματος και από καταγωγή και ότι συνεχίζουν να είναι τέτοιοι, άρρηκτα δεμένοι με την ελληνική πατρίδα τους. Και, πράγματι, όποιος μελετήσει αυτή την όμορφη γη από την άποψη της γλώσσας, της εθνικής συνείδησης, της ιστορίας, των παραδόσεων, των εθίμων και του ήθους, βλέπει παντού έναν αγνό ελληνισμό να υπάρχει αμείωτος επί δύο χιλιάδες χρόνια και πλέον. Όλα τα νομίσματα που βρέθηκαν χρονολογούνται προ Χριστού, όλες οι επιγραφές, όλα τα έργα τέχνης πριν και μετά Χριστού, είναι τόσο ελληνικά όσο και τα έργα της Αθήνας ή οποιασδήποτε άλλης ελληνικής γης. Αυτός ο ελληνισμός, ωστόσο, διέτρεχε τον κίνδυνο να αφομοιωθεί με ξένα στοιχεία πολύ κατώτερα από τον δικό του πολιτισμό. Χρειάστηκαν μεγάλες προσπάθειες και η επαναστατική εξέγερση των κατοίκων για την αναστολή αποφάσεων που παραβίαζαν κάθε αρχή δικαιοσύνης και αλήθειας.

Μια επανάσταση ξέσπασε αμέσως μετά τη συνθήκη της Φλωρεντίας. Στους δρόμους της Κορυτσάς υπάρχουν ακόμη ίχνη εκείνης της εξέγερσης. Οι Αλβανοί μπήκαν στην πόλη στις 17 Φεβρουαρίου 1914.

Αυτοί που είδαν εκείνο τον κουρελιασμένο όχλο των λιποτακτών από τον τουρκικό στρατό, συνοδευόμενο από έναν Ολλανδό αξιωματικό αυστριακής καταγωγής, τρομοκρατήθηκαν στο θέαμα.

Η χώρα έπεφτε ξανά σε έναν άλλο και πιο επαίσχυντο ζυγό. Όμως ένας μήνας δεν είχε περάσει και η πόλη όπως και τα γύρω χωριά έδειχναν ότι ήταν αδύνατο να δεχτούν τη μοίρα που τους είχε ορίσει η Διάσκεψη. Στις 19 του Μάρτιου 1914, η πόλη ήταν σε πλήρη επαναστατικό οργασμό. Την ίδια μέρα η Κορυτσά χωρίστηκε σε δύο στρατόπεδα και η μάχη από ώρα σε ώρα έπαιρνε τρομερές διαστάσεις.

Κατά τη διάρκεια των τριών ημερών η μάχη συνεχίστηκε στους διάφορους τομείς της πόλης, εκατό δεκατέσσερις Έλληνες σκοτώθηκαν και περισσότεροι από αυτόν τον αριθμό ήταν οι Αλβανοί του Wied που είχαν συγκεντρωθεί από όλες τις πλευρές.

Αυτή η επανάσταση, που ήταν απροετοίμαστη και ξέσπασε ξαφνικά, ήταν κατάλληλη για να ελεγχθεί.

Ο Μητροπολίτης και οι προύχοντες (Δημογέροντες) συνελήφθησαν και οδηγήθηκαν αλυσοδεμένοι στο Ελμπασάν.

Σε αυτή την περίπτωση οι Γκέγκοι επαναστάτησαν εναντίον του Wied και απελευθέρωσαν τον επίσκοπο και τους προύχοντες της Κορυτσάς. Μετά το ξέσπασμα του ευρωπαϊκού πολέμου, το κράτος του Wied διαλύθηκε και η Κορυτσά καταλήφθηκε ξανά από τον ελληνικό στρατό.

Από τότε οι αντιξοότητες της πόλης δεν έχουν σταματήσει. Η άθλια πολιτική του έκπτωτου βασιλιά Κωνσταντίνου έδωσε την ευκαιρία να χωριστεί η Κορυτσά από τη φυσική της ελληνική διοίκηση.

Από τότε εκείνα τα υπέροχα ελληνικά σχολεία που για περισσότερο από δύο αιώνες έχουν ρίξει το φως του πολιτισμού, έχουν πάψει να λειτουργούν προσωρινά. Η Κορυτσά είναι στην κατοχή των Γάλλων, και έχει σύστημα

διοίκησης που είναι πράγματι ιδιόμορφο, με όλα τα σημάδια της προσωρινότητας.

Μετάφραση, Επιμέλεια:

©Pelasgos Koritsas

 

*Δεν επιτρέπεται η αναδημοσίευση χωρίς την αναφορά στην πηγή.

 

 

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